Sunday, October 24, 2010

History Indonesia Army

Indonesian Army Defense Doctrine

Indonesian military policy and doctrine have developed over the six-decade period since it gained independence in 1945. This southeast Asian island archipelago nation’s boundaries are located at the approximate intersection of the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and Pacific Ocean, with the critically important internationaltrade corridor of the Strait of Malacca being within Indonesian territorial parameters.

The military has played an important and controversial role in recent Indonesian political history, with Indonesia’s occupation of East Timor from 1975–1999 representing the most vivid and contentious international example of Indonesian military activity. Military dictatorships played a dominant role in Indonesian political history until revolutions in 1998 led to a gradual reduction of the military’s preeminence in Indonesian political life.

TNI 1945
Indonesian military doctrine from approximately 1945–1998 evolved from its independence struggle against the Dutch. Called “Total People’s Defense and Security,” it emphasized guerrilla warfare that involved support and assistance from the civilian population and merged civilian and military cadres. Since the 1998
revolution, a new doctrine called “New Paradigm” has been implemented. New Paradigm was developed by senior officers, such as Lieutenant General Susilo Bambang Yudhoyano, who believed Indonesian armed forces (TNI) needed to change to accommodate Indonesian societal changes.

Idependence Struggle 1945
 Indonesia currently has no significant conventional external threat to its national security other than international terrorism. The regional terrorist group Jemaah Islamiyah conducted bombing attacks against night clubs in Bali in October 2002 and the Jakarta Marriott Hotel in August 2003, which achieved significant fatalities, as did a bombing of the Australian Embassy in Jakarta in September 2004. Cooperative Indonesian and international investigation of these assaults produced a number of arrests and revealed a network of terrorist cooperation whose membership included Al Qaida. In addition, piracy in the Strait of Malacca, smuggling, and maritime poaching also threaten Indonesian security.

Indonesia also faces a number of internal security threats stemming from terrorism and ethnic and religious conflict. Besides Jemaah Islamiyah, there are separatists in Aceh and Papua. The Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM-Free Aceh Movement) seeks an independent Islamic state in Aceh, and Organisasi Papua Merdeka
(OPM-Free West Papua Movement) seeks independence for Papua. There have been religious violence incidents in Maluku and Central Sulawesi, ethnic violence over land use in Kalimantan and other areas, incidents of anti-Chinese riots in urban areas; and instances of radical Muslim groups threatening westerners in
tourist areas and cities such as Jakarta.


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